BORIS Theses

BORIS Theses
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A novel open channel blocker of GABA-A receptors

Carta, Valentina (2014). A novel open channel blocker of GABA-A receptors. (Thesis). Universität Bern, Bern

14carta_v.pdf - Thesis
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GABA-A receptors are chloride ion channels composed of five subunits, mediating fast synaptic and tonic inhibition in the mammalian brain. 19 different subunit isoforms have been identified, with the major receptor type in mammalian adult brain consisting of α1, β2, and γ2 subunits. GABA-A receptors are the target of numerous sedating and anxiolytic drugs such as benzodiazepines. The currently known endogenous ligands are GABA, neurosteroids and the endocannabinoid 2- arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). The pharmacological properties of this chloride ion channel strictly depend on receptor subunit composition and arrangement. GABA-A receptors bind and are inhibited by epileptogenic agents such as picrotoxin, and cyclodiene insecticides such as dieldrin. We screened aromatic monovalent anions with five-fold symmetry for inhibition of GABA-A receptors. One of the anions, PCCPinhibited currents elicited by GABA with comparable potency as picrotoxin. This inhibition showed all characteristics of an open channel block. The GABA-A receptor ion channel is lined by residues from the M2 membrane-spanning segment. To identify important residues of the pore involved in the interaction with the blocking molecules PCCP-, a mutation scan was performed in combination with subsequent analysis of the expressed mutant proteins using electrophysiological techniques. In a second project we characterised a light-switchable modulator of GABA-A receptors based on propofol. It was my responsibility to investigate the switching kinetics in patch clamp experiments. After its discovery in 1980, propofol has become the most widely used intravenous general anaesthetic. It is commonly accepted that the anaesthesia induced by this unusually lipophilic drug mostly results from potentiation of GABA induced currents. While GABA-A receptors respond to a variety of ligands, they are normally not sensitive towards light. This light sensitivity could be indirectly achieved by using modulators that can be optically switched between an active and an inactive form. We tested an azobenzene derivative of propofol where an aryldiazene unit is directly coupled to the pharmacophore. This molecule was termed azopropofol (AP2). The effect of AP2 on Cl- currents was investigated with electrophysiological techniques using α1β2γ2 GABA-A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK-cells. In the third project we wanted to investigate the functional role of GABA-A receptors in the liver, and their possible involvement in cell proliferation. GABA-A receptors are also found in a wide range of peripheral tissues, including parts of the peripheral nervous system and non-neural tissues such as smooth muscle, the female reproductive system, liver and several cancer tissues. However their precise function in non neuronal or cancerous cells is still unknown. For this purpose we investigated expression, localization and function of the hepatocytes GABA-A receptors in model cell lines and healthy and cancerous hepatocytes.

Item Type: Thesis
Dissertation Type: Single
Date of Defense: 2014
Additional Information: e-Dissertation (edbe)
Subjects: 500 Science > 570 Life sciences; biology
600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
Institute / Center: 04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine
Depositing User: Admin importFromBoris
Date Deposited: 25 Jan 2019 12:59
Last Modified: 25 Jan 2019 12:59

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